Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Why KING David, Not Prophet David by Jews?

This is a question was forwared to me by a muslim:

It was Hazarat Daud (A.S) who conquered the sacred land(JERUSALEM) for the jews. Sure he was a King, but a prophet as well, who received Zabur(PSALMS) from Allah. In Bible however, It seems like he was a King alone, and he wrote PSALMS himself. He is potrayed as adulterous too(Nauzubillah). Jews should be having respect for him for what he did to them. They were suffering humiliation untill due to Hazrat Daud they entered Jerusalem again after so long. On the contrary, they only believe him as a king. WHY??In the Quran, it is mentioned that he used to recite zabur so beautifully that even birds and mountains used to sing with him. Why is this not mentioned in Jewish Scriptures? And he used to soften iron in his hand and used to sell hand-made armours to get his income. Why these things are ommitted by them?I just want to know brothers that why Jews remember David as a King but not as a Prophet.Thanks in advance for sharing your views.Jazak Allah

This is my answer:

1.Jews attitude towards David

King David is one of the most appreciated figures by Jews.King David era consider as the Golden era,the highest peak in Jewish History.The hope for the return of David Kindom created one of the most known religious terms - "Massiah"

read here:

2.King or Prophet

Is considering David as a King Only is a decrease in his respect?
King and Prophet are diffrent functions in the Jewish nation leadership.
Do you expect from the heart to function also as a brain?
Both are important and should be seperate.

read here:

3.Psalms - Prophecy?

What is the diffrent between prophecy and Prayer?
The direction.
Prophecy - From God to Man.
Prayer - From Man to God.
So what is the direction of Psalms?

A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.LORD, how many are mine adversaries become! Many are they that rise up against me.Many there are that say of my soul: 'There is no salvation for him in God.' SelahBut thou, O LORD, art a shield about me; my glory, and the lifter up of my head.With my voice I call unto the LORD, and He answereth me out of His holy mountain. SelahI lay me down, and I sleep; I awake, for the LORD sustaineth me.I am not afraid of ten thousands of people, that have set themselves against me round about.Arise, O LORD; save me, O my God; for Thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek, Thou hast broken the teeth of the wicked.Salvation belongeth unto the LORD; Thy blessing be upon Thy people. Selah
(Psalms 3)

For the Leader; with string-music. A Psalm of David.Answer me when I call, O God of my righteousness, Thou who didst set me free when I was in distress; be gracious unto me, and hear my prayer.O ye sons of men, how long shall my glory be put to shame, in that ye love vanity, and seek after falsehood? SelahBut know that the LORD hath set apart the godly man as His own; the LORD will hear when I call unto Him.Tremble, and sin not; commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still. SelahOffer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your trust in the LORD.Many there are that say: 'Oh that we could see some good!' LORD, lift Thou up the light of Thy countenance upon us.Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than when their corn and their wine increase.In peace will I both lay me down and sleep; for Thou, LORD, makest me dwell alone in safety.
(Psalms 4)

if we read Psalms carefully we get the feeling that the direction of the Book is from Man to God (Prayer).

The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended.
(Psalms 72:20)

If you open the current Jewish prayer Book(sidur) you will find that most of it are quotes from Psalms.

And David spoke unto the LORD the words of this song in the day that the LORD delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul;
(2 Samuel Chapter 22:1)

Again we see the direction Man -> God.

4.David and other Prophets

King David met during his life several prophets.
The First Prophet was Samuel which anoint David:

And the LORD said unto Samuel: 'How long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him from being king over Israel? fill thy horn with oil, and go, I will send thee to Jesse the Beth-lehemite; for I have provided Me a king among his sons.' ...Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren; and the spirit of the LORD came mightily upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
(1 Samuel 16:1-13)

Another Prophet Who was with David is prophet Gad:

And the prophet Gad said unto David: 'Abide not in the stronghold; depart, and get thee into the land of Judah.' Then David departed, and came into the forest of Hereth.
(1 Samuel 22:5)

the word of the LORD came unto the prophet Gad, David's seer, saying...
(2 Samuel 24:11)

Another Prophet Who was with David is prophet Nathan:

And it came to pass, when the king dwelt in his house, and the LORD had given him rest from all his enemies round about, that the king said unto Nathan the prophet: 'See now, I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwelleth within curtains.' And Nathan said to the king: 'Go, do all that is in thy heart; for the LORD is with thee.' And it came to pass the same night, that the word of the LORD came unto Nathan, saying: 'Go and tell My servant David: Thus saith the LORD: Shalt thou build Me a house for Me to dwell in?
(2 Samuel 7:1-5)

And the LORD sent Nathan unto David. And he came unto him, and said unto him: 'There were two men in one city: the one rich, and the other poor.
(2 Samuel 12:1)

As i already said earlier that King and Prophet are 2 diffrent function in the leadership of Israeli nation we can understand why David needed Prophet who served along with him.

5.Did David had revelation?

Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren; and the spirit of the LORD came mightily upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
(1 Samuel 16:13)

The spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and His word was upon my tongue. The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me...
(2 Samuel 23:2-3)

6.David as adulterous

And it came to pass at eventide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house; and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: 'Is not this Bath-sheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?' And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was purified from her uncleanness; and she returned unto her house.
(2 Samuel 11:2-4)

We find a lot of biblical stories that show us the dark side of the great figures.
The bible don't do idealization to anyone.

For there is not a righteous man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.
(Ecclesiastes 7:20)

The focus shouldn't be on the sin but on "sin managment":

And David said unto Nathan: 'I have sinned against the LORD.' And Nathan said unto David: 'The LORD also hath put away thy sin; thou shalt not die.
(2 Samuel 12:13)

The focus should be on David repent!

7.Summary of David in bible

There is a verse that summarize David Status in the eye of the jews:

Now these are the last words of David: The saying of David the son of Jesse, and the saying of the man raised on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet singer of Israel
(2 Samuel 23:1)

8.Talmud & Islamic prespective

As i said before The bible don't do idealization to anyone.
But the Islamic prespecive that believe that Prophets can't commit sins like this is probably developed from the talmud:

R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in R. Jonathan's name: Whoever says that David sinned is merely erring, for it is said, And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways: and the Lord was with him.Is it possible that sin came to his hand, yet the Divine Presence was with him?
(Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 56a)

No comments:

Post a Comment